Exploring the Inner World of Golf Balls: What’s Inside?

Golf, a sport known for its precision and technique, involves a variety of equipment to ensure an optimal playing experience. One of the key components in a golfer’s arsenal is the golf ball. While it may seem like a simple sphere, the inner workings of a golf ball are surprisingly complex and carefully engineered to meet the demands of the game. 

The Outer Shell: Covering the Basics

The outer layer of a golf ball, commonly referred to as the cover, is the first point of contact with the clubface. It plays a crucial role in determining the ball’s spin, trajectory, and overall feel. Golf ball covers are typically made from one of two materials: Surlyn or urethane.

Surlyn Covers: Durability and Distance

Surlyn, a type of ionomer resin developed by DuPont, is a popular choice for golf ball covers. Known for its durability, Surlyn covers are resistant to cuts and abrasions, making them suitable for golfers who prioritise distance and longevity. These covers are often found in lower-priced balls designed for recreational and amateur players.

Urethane Covers: Precision and Control

On the other end of the spectrum, urethane covers are favoured by advanced players seeking enhanced spin and control. Urethane is a softer material than Surlyn, providing a better feel and increased interaction with the clubface. This type of cover is commonly found in high-performance, tour-level golf balls.

The Middle Layer: Adding Distance and Consistency

Beneath the cover lies the middle layer, also known as the mantle. The mantle contributes to the overall performance of the golf ball by influencing its compression, speed, and consistency. Golf ball manufacturers use various materials and formulations for the mantle to achieve specific characteristics.

Dual-Core Construction: Balancing Distance and Control

Many modern golf balls feature a dual-core construction, consisting of an inner and outer core. The inner core, typically made from a high-energy material like rubber, is designed to maximise compression and increase initial ball speed. 

The outer core, which surrounds the inner core, is often made from a softer material to enhance feel and control. This dual-core design strikes a balance between distance and playability, catering to a broad range of golfers.

Single-Core Construction: Simplifying for Distance

Some golf balls opt for a single-core construction, where the entire core is made from a high-energy material. This design aims to maximise distance by prioritising ball speed off the clubface. Golfers who prioritise raw power and distance may find single-core balls more suited to their playing style.

The Inner Core: Powering Performance

At the heart of every golf ball is its core, a critical component that influences the ball’s compression, spin, and overall performance. Cores can vary in size, composition, and construction, and golf ball manufacturers continuously innovate to create cores that deliver optimal results for different player profiles.

High Compression Cores: Power and Distance

High compression cores are firmer and provide less deformation upon impact, resulting in higher ball speeds. Golf balls with high compression cores are often preferred by players with faster swing speeds, as they can generate more power and distance. However, these balls may feel too hard for golfers with slower swing speeds.

Low Compression Cores: Soft Feel and Control

Conversely, low compression cores are softer and compress more upon impact. This design benefits golfers with moderate to slow swing speeds, offering a softer feel and greater control. Golf balls with low compression cores are popular among seniors, beginners, and players who prioritise a softer touch around the greens.

Dimples: The External Influence on Flight

The surface of a golf ball is adorned with dimples, small indentations that may seem like a simple aesthetic feature but play a crucial role in the ball’s aerodynamics and flight stability. Dimples reduce aerodynamic drag and help the ball maintain a more stable trajectory, especially in windy conditions. 

The pattern, depth, and arrangement of dimples vary among different golf ball models, each influencing the ball’s performance in unique ways.

Technological Advancements: Beyond Traditional Construction

As technology continues to advance, golf ball manufacturers are incorporating innovative materials and design concepts to push the boundaries of performance. Some of the latest trends in golf ball technology include:

Soft Fast Cores: The Best of Both Worlds

To address the challenge of combining soft feel with high ball speeds, manufacturers are developing soft fast cores. These cores aim to deliver the benefits of both low and high compression designs, providing golfers with a responsive feel while maintaining distance off the tee.

Aerodynamic Enhancements: Reducing Drag for More Distance

Advancements in aerodynamics have led to the development of golf balls with dimple patterns specifically designed to reduce drag and increase lift. These enhancements contribute to longer carries and improved overall distance, particularly for golfers with faster swing speeds.

Alignment Aids: Precision Putting

Some golf balls feature alignment aids, such as strategically placed markings or lines, to assist golfers in aligning their putts more accurately. These markings can help golfers visualise the intended path of the putt and improve putting accuracy.


What’s inside a golf ball goes far beyond the simple exterior that meets the eye. The intricate combination of materials, design, and technology within a golf ball contributes to its performance characteristics, catering to the diverse needs and preferences of golfers at different skill levels.